Nasal polyps: Common causes, symptoms, and treatments

Nasal polyps are soft, painless, non-cancerous growths that develop within the lining of the nasal passages or sinuses. They often occur in clusters, resembling grapes, and can vary in size. While generally benign, nasal polyps can cause discomfort and disrupt normal breathing. You can learn more about treatment for nasal polyps with an online search.

Causes of Nasal Polyps

The precise cause of nasal polyps isn't fully understood. However, chronic inflammation within the nasal passages and sinuses is believed to play a significant role. Conditions such as chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), asthma, aspirin sensitivity, and cystic fibrosis are often associated with the development of nasal polyps. Inflammatory factors, immune system irregularities, and genetic predisposition may also contribute to their formation.

Common Symptoms

Nasal polyps can manifest a range of symptoms, and their severity can vary from person to person. Some common symptoms include:

Nasal Congestion: A persistent stuffy or blocked nose due to the presence of polyps in the nasal passages.

Runny Nose: Excessive nasal discharge, often accompanied by a postnasal drip, is a typical symptom.

Reduced Sense of Smell and Taste: Nasal polyps can interfere with the ability to smell (olfactory senses) and taste, impacting overall quality of life.

Difficulty Breathing: The growth of polyps can obstruct the nasal airways, making it challenging to breathe through the nose.

Facial Pain or Pressure: Some individuals may experience discomfort or pressure in the facial region, particularly around the eyes, due to sinus blockage caused by the polyps.

Snoring and Sleep Apnea: Nasal polyps can contribute to snoring or obstructive sleep apnea, leading to disturbed sleep patterns and fatigue.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience persistent or severe symptoms.


If you suspect nasal polyps, consulting an ENT (ear, nose, and throat) specialist is crucial. The diagnosis typically involves a thorough examination of the nasal passages using a nasal endoscope, a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera. Other imaging tests like CT scans or MRI may be recommended to assess the size and location of the polyps accurately.

Treatment Options

The treatment approach for nasal polyps aims to reduce their size, alleviate symptoms, and prevent recurrence. The chosen treatment may vary based on the size of the polyps, the severity of symptoms, and individual medical history. Common treatment options include:

Nasal Sprays: Corticosteroid nasal sprays are often prescribed to reduce inflammation and shrink the nasal polyps. These sprays can help alleviate congestion, runny nose, and improve breathing.

Oral Corticosteroids: In more severe cases, a short course of oral corticosteroids may be prescribed to rapidly reduce inflammation and manage symptoms.

Surgery: Endoscopic sinus surgery is an option for larger or persistent polyps. This procedure involves removing the polyps and can significantly improve breathing and reduce symptoms.

Biologic Medications: For individuals with severe nasal polyps and inadequate response to other treatments, biologic medications that target specific proteins involved in inflammation may be considered.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies
In addition to medical treatments, certain lifestyle adjustments can help manage nasal polyps and reduce the risk of recurrence:

Nasal Irrigation: Using a saline solution to rinse the nasal passages can help keep them moist and clear of mucus, providing relief from congestion.

Avoid Allergens: Identifying and avoiding allergens that trigger nasal inflammation can be beneficial. Common triggers include dust mites, pet dander, pollen, and certain environmental pollutants.

Humidification: Using a humidifier can add moisture to the air, preventing dryness in the nasal passages and potentially reducing irritation.


Nasal polyps can cause discomfort and impact daily life, but with appropriate medical attention and treatment, their impact can be minimized. Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and exploring the available treatment options are crucial steps toward managing this common nasal condition effectively. If you suspect nasal polyps, consult a healthcare professional for a comprehensive evaluation and personalized treatment plan.